All About Pornography
Pornography, more commonly known around the world as porn, consists of seemingly sexually explicit material intended to sexually arouse other individuals. Today, porn is easily viewable at the click of a button by anyone with an internet connection, though also it comes in the forms of literature, audio, magazine, etc. It has become a massive phenomenon in today’s modern pop culture and seems to permeate the daily thoughts and conversations of almost every individual. Porn has flocked millions of people both to the spectator side as well as the creator side, bringing about a multi-billion dollar industry that brings in more yearly revenue than all major professional sports combined. At the peak of the world’s society’s list of controversies, the topic of porn is seen as immoral to many to talk about or show in a public setting, despite its private popularity. Porn, representation of sexual behavior in books, pictures, statutes, motion films, and other forms of media are often intended to cause sexual excitement. The distinction between porn (both illicit and condemned material) and erotica (which today is broadly tolerated) is largely subjective and reflects changing community standards. The word pornography, derived from the Greek porni (prostitute) and graphene (write), was initially defined as a work of art or piece of literature depicting the life and story of prostitutes. It is undoubtedly true that over the past few centuries, porn has undergone massive cultural and naturalistic changes that will continue to evolve with the global set of culture and norms. Most people who use porn use it only every so often. Sometimes people will seek out porn simply because it feels good to be in a state of sexual excitement. Sometimes they use it to be entertained or to be distracted from work or other activities. More often that perhaps assumed, people don’t use it just because of the pleasure, but also because it makes them feel more fulfilled; a subtle yet important distinction.
As early as 30,000 years ago, Paleolithic people were initially making carvings of large-breasted and thick figurines pregnant women made out of stone and wood. Archaeologists who analyze these doubt these “Venus figurines” were initially intended for sexual arousal. More likely, they were religious icons and/or fertility symbols.
Moving forward through history, the ancient Greeks and Romans made public sculptures and frescos depicting homosexuality, threesomes, fellatio, and even cunnilingus. In India during the second coming century, the Karma Sutra was half of a sex manual, half relationship handbook. The Moche people extremely artistic and painted in Peru using sexual scenes on ceramic pottery, while the aristocracy in the 16th century Japan was fond o erotic woodblock prints. In the early 1800s the very idea of porn began to permeate through the massive evolving culture and conversations of the world. For a long duration of time, stag films remained stagnant, both in terms of their quality as well as content. However, in the 1970s, changing social norms opened the door for public showing of explicit films. The internet and the invention of the digital camera lowered the barriers to porn, making so extremely low that the entirety of websites are now devoted solely to non-professional videos. Today, porn is essentially all over the internet, however the actual size of the industry is a mystery. No one truly keeps official records, and honestly a few studies have made a stab at the economics of porn. Adult Video News, a trade industry journal, made annual estimate of porn sales/rentals, along with sales of magazines and sex toys. In 2007, according to an AVN senior editor Mark Kernes, retail sales reached a massive $6 billion in a single year. Regardless of how much money is being made, porn is certainly attracting eyes. A 2008 study of 813 American college students found that 87 percent of men and 31 percent of women reported using pornography.
Aside from its sexual element, porn became a powerful vehicle for social and political unrest. It provided a vehicle for the exploration of daring ideas that were initially condemned by both church and state, including the sexual freedom for women as well as for men and their practices of contraception and abortion. Most of porn is also focused on the misdeeds of royals and aristocrats, thus contributing to the discrediting of the elites in the European region. Pornographic films were widely available no later than the early 1920s, and then in the 60s their popularity enjoyed a massive upsurge. The development of videotape in the 80s and DVDs in the 90s enabled the widespread distribution of porn films and further encouraged their use because they could be viewed in private settings. Porn images and films became even more widely available with the emergence of the internet and the advancement of tech in the 90s. The porn industry became one of the biggest cash cows on the internet with massive profits. Apart from providing a vast marketplace for commercial pornography appealing to many diverse tastes, the internet also encouraged many amateurs to post pictures of themselves, that typically would challenge the status quo of beauty and sexual appeal. The use of these webcams opened the industry even further to young people, allowing individuals to post live depictions of themselves, often for fees. The web also increased the availability of child pornography.
While the roots of porn are clearly laid out throughout history, what remains to been today is how the art form will evolve over time. Most agree that the video form will continue to boom as long as tech and entertainment collaborate in our society, which doesn’t to be stopping anytime soon. What is disputed is whether or not the morals of the world will evolve to be more conservatively utilized, potentially threatening the existence of porn itself.
The majority of pornography’s popularity is surprisingly due to the advancement of the recent boom in tech and the internet. Most of the research being done currently is looking into its effect on the human mind, its addiction causing abilities, and how negative or positive its perceived effects on the mind. Furthermore, brain wave scans were taken during viewing periods of males and females. Viewers were also interviewed following these sessions. Parental studies were also performed to test for correlation in supervision by parental units and the consequent reduction of the viewing of porn.
As with other additive substance, porn floods most parts of the brain with high amounts of dopamine. But since the brain can easily get overwhelmed by the constant overload of chemicals that come with the consistent use of porn, it typically fights back by removing the receptors, which are like tiny ears on the bottom end of a neuron that has the message that dopamine sends. With fewer receptors, even if the brain itself is putting off the same levels in response to porn, the user usually can’t feel any effect as much as per se a drug. As a result, the porn they were viewing doesn’t seem as rousing or exciting, and naturally many porn users go on a hunt for more content or more hardcore porn to achieve the same effect that the original content used to offer and provide. As a frequent porn user’s brain acclimates to the new levels of dopamine flooding through itself, the regular activities that would normally set off dopamine signals and make the person feel happy are not strong enough to register as much anymore, leaving the user with a sense of remorse when left alone without any pron. For this reason, porn can be incredibly addictive.
Once this massive addiction sets in, new problems come about for the user because the addiction actually damages the part of the brain that assists in good decision making skills, the brain’s limit setting system. For over a decade, studies have consistently shown that addiction can cause the brain’s frontal lobes to shrink. While this is a rather technical term, the frontal lobe controls the logical problem solving and decision making side of our brain. However, recent studies have found that drugs are not the only key player. These same issues can easily show up with other types of addictions, not limited to overeating, internet addictions, and most importantly, sexual arousal and compulsion.
Addiction to porn, among other substances that people can easily become addicted to, can be understood more easily through the principles of operant and classical conditioning. In this concept, watching porn can be reinforced or rewarded, which would then cause the human to want to repeat the action again and again. Lots of different things we do and use can be reinforcing and thus influence our behavior. That being said porn is a special category itself because the reward taps in to a very basic and instinctual drive – the sex drive. Therefore, it is very easy to become addicted to pron and seems too easy to access this fundamental and enjoyable natural drive. It doesn’t help that finding a physical mate is a much more involved task for individuals. The problem occurs when this passion becomes excessive, impulsive, or even comes at the expense of other valued behaviors. This would be considered a legitimate porn addiction.
Recent research over time has shown time and time again that when men watch pornographic material, they tend to experience lower levels of sexual intimacy in their real life relationships. On the other hand, when women use porn, the research shows that intimacy increases. While men tend to view pornography on their own, women are more likely to watch with their partners in a shared sexual experience. Also, men and women typically will use different types of porn at the same time. Men are typically drawn more so to videos that show sex acts that have a lack of context, story lines, and angles. When partners use porn together, they tend to watch things where both partners are more egalitarian participants in an act of sex.
Although some couples seem to benefit from porn, that’s not necessarily the case for everyone. When one partner uses porn at a high frequency, there can be a tendency to withdraw emotionally from the relationship. When it comes to the addiction side of pornography, researchers across the board agree that while there is almost a decade of data available, it is simply not enough of a sustainable timeline to assert any conclusions or implications. This is due to the fact that addiction typically shows itself in cycles over the entirety of a lifetime, and with the recent birth of in-depth research on porn, these cycles are nowhere to found (quite yet). That being said, many researchers can and do speculate that when the data becomes significant from a relational standpoint, it will show an addiction factor as nearly strong as drugs and alcohol. What remains to be seen is whether not is indeed the empirical case.
While it is indeed difficult to pinpoint how many teens are viewing porn on the internet, one study reported that 42% of internet users from 10-17 years old said they viewed porn online in the past year. Another study in the southeast region of the US found that 53% of boys and 28% of girls reported viewing sexually explicit material and the most popular forum for doing so was the internet. The world wide web makes it extremely easy for young people to satisfy their sexual curiosity in the comforts of their own residence. Ironically, many parents have no sense or idea of what their children do in their private rooms.
When questioned about their thoughts on their behavior, it seemed that many young Americans to not consider pornography to be much of a negative aspect. When they speak on the issue of pornography with friends, about 90% of teens and 96% of young adults say they do so in a neutral; accepting or encouraging way. Only 1 in 20 young adults and 1 in 10 teens say that their friends think viewing porn is a bad thing. That being said, teens and young adults say that “not recycling” is more immoral than viewing pornography.
Between the young ages of 12 and 20, the human brain undergoes a period of great neuroplasticity. The brain is in a very malleable phase in which billions of new synaptic connections established, leaving us vulnerable to the influence of our time period. When an adolescent boy compulsively views porn, his brain chemistry can easily become shaped around the attitudes and situation that he is watching. However, sadly, porn paints an unrealistic picture of sexuality and relationships that can easily create an expectation for real life experiences that will probably never be fulfilled.
Porn can certainly be exciting for a young boy to watch, however it can also serve to be very intimidating. Pornography has showed the people of the world an environment in which relationships have very little meaning and that immediate sexual gratification reigns supreme above all other goals. As porn spreads and spreads, young minds are being wired to expect that sex and relationships are completely separate from one another and that human bodies should be as sexually exaggerated as they are in porn, which can easily lead to shame about their own body.
Within the grand scheme of the internet, porn is extremely inexpensive, easy to access, and ultimately easy to hide traces on. Many young adults look at pornography when parental units are under the impression that they busy working away at their homework. Meanwhile during masturbation, the young brain is being shaped round a sexual experience that is to the contrary of reality: isolating, visceral and lacking in love or true compassion. This happens to have the potential for leading to larger problems in terms of sexual compulsiveness and addiction to sex later in life. This is because the young brain will be shaped to expect these heroin-like dopamine rushes in the future in real life sexual encounters. When this rush does not come, the individual may end up seeking riskier and more visceral experiences to compensate with the videos he or she has been viewing.
After over forty years of promoting a movement much lacking in scientific empirical evidence, anti-porn activists are beginning to become increasingly desperate for ways to convince the uneducated public that sex on film is the greatest cultural threat today. Most of the arguments can be summed up in a singular idea: that porn violates the humanity of those involved. Manifestos such as the Humanist Manifesto III (the latest declaration of humanist principles by the AMA) describes humanism as a “progressive philosophy of life that without supernaturalism, affirms the human’s ability and responsibility to lead a life full of ethical and moral decisions that achieve personal fulfillment whilst aspiring the greater good of humanity.” In other words, it is a worldview that is concerned with human needs and interests. In direct violation, pornography is defined typically by the degradation and abuse of the women involved (according to their arguments). A key differentiating factor between porn and humanism is the respective attitudes regarding diversity. Humanism typically advocates it while porn paints a black and white portrait of sexuality, gender roles, and beauty. Humanism in a general sense is committed to celebrating and accepting the complete spectrum of humanity. Furthermore, the most significant difference between the two philosophies is how they define the value of human life and their interactions between each other. At the core of humanism is a sense of ethical treatment of others and the valuation of the individual. Article III of the manifesto proclaims that humanists are “committed to treating each person as having inherent worth and value.” The objectification and dehumanization of women put forward by pornography communicates the predicted opposite of this, proclaiming that women are by nature inferiors to the male dominant figure, and consequently do not deserve any respect, safety, or even basic human rights.
To this day, the Food and Drug Administration has not approved any medication solely for the purpose of treating pornography addiction. Some research however of different medications have revealed promising results in decreasing the symptoms off porn addiction but there is a lack of randomize, controlled trials. Porn addiction and related sexual dysfunctions oftentimes co-occur with mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety. All of these mental health issues can actually be easily treated using antidepressants, for example, SSRIs and related drugs, which can then reduce sexual cravings associated with porn addiction as a byproduct.
Research over the past decade has suggested that the use of pornography can indeed cause a sexually compulsive and dependent behavioral habit, leading to sex addiction eventually. There is also a significant correlation between sexual addiction and substance abuse disorders. Teenagers as well who view sexually explicit material are much more likely to have used alcohol or other illicit substances during their most recent sexual encounters. The earlier someone begins using a substance, the more likely it is that he/she will become addicted. Therefore, teens who develop a porn addiction are at a greater risk for developing a substance abuse disorder as well. Treating concurring addictions is a complex process most certainly for many individuals. Medical professionals must assess the pattern of drug use and pornography viewing and how they relate to each other. Once the interaction of both addictions is assessed, then appropriate treatment can be administered.
Another relevant finding by those who are conducting brain research is the area of what are being called mirror neurons. These neurons make up a circuit located in the frontal/parietal lobes. These neurons are involved in the process for mimicking a certain type of behavior. These contain motor systems that correlate to the planning out of a logical process or behavior. Other regions may hold that behavior in check but are still primed to continue indefinitely. Whenever a behavior is present, there is a bit of a silent echo in the brain; a neurological mirror of ourselves doing that behavior that resides in the brain stem. This allows us to (in a positive way) learn from other, however it can easily turn negative, with respects to porn for example. Theses neurons are typically heavily involved in the viewing of porn because porn viewing is typically a vicarious experience and a interesting learning experience. As men watch the sexually charged scenes, they mirror those actions via masturbation which ultimately triggers their arousal in the future. This echo will happen even in the lack of the action, causing a need for the outlet again, leading to the origin of addiction.
Having an understanding of the flood of dopamine explains psychologically why porn can easily change one’s behavior. From a physiological point of view, the brain is building up a tolerance to material it sees, just like the body builds up a tolerance to certain drugs after continued use. This also explains why porn users typically report the need to watch extreme videos just to attain arousal. This historically was impossible, but with the proliferation of the internet, escalation can happen with ease. That being said, however, dopamine doesn’t just cause the physiological change but behavioral ones as well. Dopamine causes a strong desire in the body when it enters. When a person is flooded with dopamine while watching porn, their response to porn itself strengthens. The mind then in the future associates porn with a strong rush of dopamine, leading to the creation of an appeal to continue the behavior in the future. Since the rate of return on dopamine is forever diminishing, high levels of porn watching are usually needed to get to the same stage of feeling desirable based on dopamine. However, the dopamine doesn’t cause pleasure by nature. This means that many mental health patients seek help because porn is in a way deteriorating their own relationships and it distorts their perspective and expectation of pleasure.
Besides increasing the high likelihood of deteriorating a solid relationship, usage of porn has in the past been linked to lowered satisfaction in certain relationships. In an early indecently reviewed experiment, it was discovered that men who consumed porn were a lot more dominating and less attentive towards their partners. Men would self-report finding less pleasure in bed with their partners despite not a decrease in attractiveness being reported. Many say that in order to reach climax and orgasm, they need to visualize porn scene that they had previously seen. Finally, self-reports who admit they consume too much porn material show that a constant theme is the shift in approach to women. A study done at Yale shows that rather than objectifying women, exposure to porn actually makes a man animalify women. Men exposed to porn show an increased likelihood to treat women as though they lack the capacity for complex thinking and reasoning while still treating them as capable of having strong emotional responses.
Some studies do show that porn may in fact be beneficial to relationships. However, a closer examination of these studies show that the vast majority of the findings don’t show an increase of the livelihood and wellbeing of the relationships but rather self-reported enhancements of sexual performance and attitudes, much to be expected with ease. Reports from partners are typically overly negative and pessimistic. It’s also likely that the respondents who self-report improvements are looking for a way to justify their consumption of porn further. People who watch porn, according to research, are more likely to view women as inferiors, more so than people who don’t watch porn. They are not however less of a feminist, according to a Journal of Sex Research article. The role of porn in shaping attitudes towards women has been a hot topic of the recent debate scene. Some commentators argue that porn is inherently demeaning to women, and that viewing it causes men to develop ore hostile gender attitudes and causes women to internalize negative gender stereotypes. Others contended that porn empowers women, and that viewing it promotes much more equal gender attitudes among both men and women. In total according to research, 23% of Americans admitted that they had viewed porn in the last year. Both male and females had better attitudes towards women working outside the house, and were more supportive of abortion, in comparison with those who had not watched porn. Also, male porn viewers had more positive attitudes about women holding positions of political power in comparison with male non-viewers. There were no differences between porn viewers in terms of either feminist identification or attitudes towards traditional family gender roles.
Numerous laws and regulations, both at the federal and state level have been concocted in order to deter the use, commerce, and distribution of pornographic materials, with the notion a speculation that it may be harmful to the greater good of the society. Within the US, countless regulations have been placed within the criminal justice system to prevent rampant child porn. Possessions of child porn, and the detrition of it consequently are some of the most targeted activities for investing both federal and state law enforcement agencies. Of course, a person has to knowingly possess porn images of children to be guilty of possession, and the images have to be real images of underage person for a legit prosecution. Practical problems some people encounter are learning of these images that were loaded onto the either sites without their knowledge, or certain images that were transferred without intent to distribution. These situations in both pre-Indictment and post Indictment stages, require the use of expert computer forensic services to establish facts that may not be known to the investigators. Not all porn is illegal, and that’s the main reason that people see some of these materials for sale in various retail outlets. Porn is a way for some adults to express themselves, make a living or find entertainment. These people are free to purchase and own it, businesses are free to make, publish, and sell it. Adults are also free to legally participate in it for payment.
Porn loses its 1st amendment protections, however, when it becomes obscene or it involves children. At this stage, federal and state laws can make it illegal to make, sell, own, and even look at some of this material. Anyone violating these laws may be fined, sent to jail or both. Generally speaking, obscenity is sex-related material that goes beyond nudity. As the US Supreme Court said over 35 years ago, “nudity alone is not enough to make material legally obscene.” In simple terms, it’s not obscenity unless it shows hard-core sexual conduct that is clearly and plainly offensive. There is no national standard/rule about what is obscene and what is not. Child porn typically aims to stop the abuse and exploitation for children. The laws are much stricter than normal ordinary obscenity laws. There are no tests or exceptions and community standards aren’t involved. If the porn involves children it is automatically without a doubt illegal. Under federal law, child porn is any photo, film or generated image that shows a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct. The law gives numerous examples of what qualifies as sexually explicit conduct. It’s a federal crime to have, make, sell or distribute, even look at child porn. In other words, it is very unlikely that someone would be prosecuted for accidentally finding and viewing a child porn picture while surfing the internet. In addition, anyone charged with having or distributing child porn has to prove that the materials in their possession were not made with and don’t show real children. It is also a crime to offer to sell, trade, or buy child porn as well. Every state and the District of Columbia have laws making it a crime to have/make/sell/distribute child porn.
The general overarching laws are where the lines between legal and illegal start to blur. Porn per se is not prohibited by federal law, unless it involves sexually explicit depictions of minors. Rather, the law distinguishes between indecent and obscene material. Indecent porn enjoys limited 1st amendment protection and is generally legal for adults to sell/distribute/possess, so long as it’s not made available to minors. Obscene material has none of these protections except one. The court ruled that privacy of the home still appliers. It cannot be delivered to the home however.
Making an in-depth assessment of the global public opinion of porn is extremely difficult due to the fact that the vast majority of people have no desire to discuss porn out in a public situation, let alone any sort of research settings. There has however been a significant amount of studies done regarding the interactions between world relation and porn. Different groups have very different ways of answering this question. Some were predicable. White evangelicals and people over the age of 68 are the least likely to approve of watching these films. But both of those groups have made it very clear that they are much more likely than high school graduates to approve. Only 23 percent of that group told the researchers that it was okay. There were especially curious trends in how some of these groups in the study saw the legal question versus the moral question of the situation. Roughly the same percentage of Generation X members feel that it is wrong and think that it should be legally restricted with 33 percent approving morally and 34 percent saying they’d oppose legal restrictions. Among Hispanic Catholics, on the other hand, only 14 percent approve morally, but 66 percent say they’d oppose legal restrictions.
Public opposition against porn has declined massively over the past 40 years. In the 70s almost 53 percent of women and 34 percent of men believed there should be laws against the distribution of porn, according to a recent study. By 2012 it had fallen to 43 percent of women and 23 percent of men. However, after accounting for differences between men and women in areas like education, religion, and political views, researchers at the University of Maryland found that men’s opposition fell 13 percent and women’s fell just under 8 percent over the last 40 years. To address the increasingly complex accepting of porn and its impact on women worldwide, a growing number of scholars and activists are framing their opposition as a public health concern, noting that talking about the subject’s impacts on relationships and families and communities is a more effective approach that they typically act of opposing it on religious or moral grounds. Public opinion of porn has evolved over the past four decades in the midst of an increase in permissive attitudes surrounding sexuality, gender and free speech; a huge increase in free, online porn; and increasingly violent and themed porn, according to the study.
For women who are not interested, speaking out against porn can be extremely difficult, because they run the risk of appearing too hostile to men and being branded as feminists which in today’s postfeminist age is often a label many try to avoid. While feminism has never been defined by a single ideal, the last several decades have seen a dramatic shift in how feminist think about se and porn. Roughly broken down into three main historical waves, the first feminists focused on citizenship and getting the vote, while the second wave focused mainly of legal equality. The third wave or post-feminist movement has been an intrafeminist critique where issues of gender sexuality and identity are more fluid concepts, not rigid roles. Many of today’s feminist (who may or may not use that label) see porn as a positive development, a chance for women to be liberated from the sexual repression and male-dominated society of the past. While struggles surrounding sexual identity and roles are real, particularly for college aged one, trying to understand one’s sexuality though the lens of porn is very skewed mainly because it erroneously leads women to believe that porn equals sexuality.
Proliferation of Amateur/Home-Grown Porn
Of all the genres that form the wide and crazy world of adult entertainment, few of them have shown as much persistence, profit ability, and longevity as has the amateur porn marketplace. While armature porn can trace its roots back to the first Neanderthal to pose naked for a cave painting, it wasn’t until the home video/VHS revolution of the 80s that amateur porn really took off in massive popularity. As countless people in the word turned on their new camcorders and find themselves filming their personal sex lives, the credit was given credit of exploding the adult movie industry in the 1980s, allowing users to pay back their creations later for the enjoyment of everyone with whom they wished to share their images, and sharing is what they did, first for fun, then for profit. Turning some amateur into pros from this process made them millions of dollars in this process. This evolution escalated with the introduction of the internet and the development of the digital cameras we now take for granted, both of which like home video allowed for a great degree of privacy for the performers and an unprecedented level of low cost, widespread distribution.
The Porn Industry
Today, the porn industry represents an annual revenue of $97 billion. With most porn the internet now being free and easy to find, the number of sites, and traffic, have naturally exploded. The web boasts and estimated 700-800m individual porn pages, 3/5 in America. Earlier than other parts of the online world, porn discover that traffic and data are the coin of the digital realm. Traffic became the basis for a new business model. However the industry faced regulatory risks and governments seeded to strength filtering and enforce age restrictions for viewing. Another risk is that Google and other search engines censor keywords that relate to porn. It already seems to be moving porn sites down search results. Still another fact is that Visa and MasterCard follow AMEX in refusing to process payments to porn sites. Meanwhile pay sites are fighting a constant battle with surveyors of computer viruses and malware. In 2010 a group of researchers at the Vienna University of Tech and elsewhere found that over 3 percent of porn pages triggered malicious behavior of one sort or other. The risk of malware or fraud makes may porn-watchers think twice before opening their wallets, as does the risk of exposure if a site they subscribe to is hacked.
The Future of Pornography
Porn is a pioneer in VR, a technology being eyed avidly by tech giants such as Facebook, Microsoft, among others. Along with the video gaming industry, the VR community is sure to play a key role in mainstream porn adoption. A fast-growing cottage industry makes sex toys that work with Oculus Rift and other VR headsets. There is also much excitement about teledildonics: remote control tech that allows people thousands of miles apart to control each other’s gadgets. VR porn, which offers such a VR experience enhanced with sex toys, claims to have signed up in the high thousands of subscribers at seven dollars a month. After the rise in piracy and free clip websites, porn companies are hoping to bring in some revenue with this new VR offering. Alongside the cost to have a VR headset, customers will have to subscribe to premium services to access the content. But it remains to be seen how consumers will react to wearing a pair of these gadget goggles whilst watching porn and if whether they are prepared to pay for that special privilege. While Oculus, HTC, and Sony are all preparing to finally release their headsets, which are widely considered the three primary entries into the market, porn sites are already hyping their support for one of these products. The OR website received 2.7% of its referral traffic from VR sites between January and November 2015.
For virtual reality to become a viable business, porn, which tends to rank among any new technology’s and most eager adopters, will need to play a starring role, analysts say. By 2025, such adult content is forecast to be a one-billion-dollar industry. The relationship between adult film and VR will likely be mutually beneficial for the top players with porn bolstering the sales and use of headsets, and subscriptions giving the porn industry a much-desired new revenue stream. The porn industry is betting new advances in the tech can convince more people to pay for the content inset tradition porn sales have been slowing. High piracy rates and the proliferation of free sites that offer homemade content are mainly to blame. Now that tech has improved, content creators are exploring all kinds of content channels to increase revenues. Industry companies are hoping to increase revenues dramatically if VR adult content takes off and stays consistently behind a paywall due to the high barriers of entry, which result largely from filming challenges. Part of what separates VR from traditional video, and makes its production more difficult is that is experience is designed to be so powerful and immersive it tricks people into believing that they are fully present in a stimulated world. The porn industry has taken that step farther, partnering with makers of digitally-connected sex toys, a budding field known as teledidldonics – to sync VR videos with the physical movements of toys.